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Types Of Fiber Reinforcement

Types Of Fiber Reinforcement

  19 Apr 2019          Bhor Chemicals

There are many different types of fibers which can be used to reinforce polymer matrix composites. However the most common are carbon fibers and fiberglass.

Read on to know more about the different types of fiber reinforcement.

1. Carbon (Graphite) Fibers

Carbon fibers are much conductive, but have an excellent combination of high modulus and high tensile strength. Also they have a meagre CTE and thus they offer good resistance to high temperatures.

Carbon fibers are mostly categorised using tensile modulus. There are five categories in carbon fibers which are generally used in composites:

  • Low modulus
  • Standard modulus
  • Intermediate modulus
  • High modulus
  • Ultra-high modulus

The exact cut-off in these categories may vary depending on the reference but generally, low modulus fibers have a tensile modulus of lesser than 30Msi. Also the ultra-high modulus fibers have tensile modulus greater than 75Msi. For comparison, the steel has a tensile modulus of 29Msi.

As the modulus increases, fibers tend to get more and more brittle, more expensive and much harder to handle.

Furthermore, the tensile strength of the fibers generally increases with the modulus increases from low to intermediate, but then falls off in the high and ultra-high modulus fibers. Thus it can be said that the tensile strength of carbon fibers tends to be the greatest for the intermediate modulus fibers. For such reasons, standard and intermediate modulus fibers are considered to have great performance unless the application is very stiffness oriented.

2. Fiberglass

Fiberglass is a glass which has been spun into the form of fibers. Fiberglass is comparatively less strong and stiff but has the characteristics which make it desirable in many applications. Fiberglass is non-conductive and is an insulator. It is usually invisible to most types of transmissions. This makes it a great choice while dealing with the electrical or broadcast applications.

There are five major types of fiberglass:

  • A-glass (alkali glass)- Good chemical resistance
  • C-glass (chemical glass)- Very high chemical resistance
  • E-glass (electrical glass)- Excellent insulator and resists attacks from water.
  • S-Glass (structural glass)- Optimised for mechanical properties.
  • D-glass (dielectric glass)- Has the best electrical properties but lacks in mechanical properties as compared to E and S glass

These types are great combinations of chemical resistance, mechanical properties and insulating properties.

3. Other Fibers

Even though carbon fibers and fiberglass are the most popular fiber reinforcements in thermoplastic composites, there are other alternatives like Aramid fibers like Kevlar, Twaron and boron fibers which are previously used in composites and offer some beneficial properties like amazing toughness and compressive strength. However, they have characteristics which have limited use. These fibers include ceramic fibers, including SiC or aluminum oxide. These fibers may be useful for their compression, insulating, and high-temperature properties.

Automated Dynamics’ staff can also assist with the selection of the best fiber for your application based on program needs, availability, economics, and other factors as well.

Want to know more about Fiber reinforcements? Explore our exclusive range of products Hexacure Fiber Reinforced Polymer. Don’t hesitate to call us for more information!

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What are Prepegs? Their Advantages and Disadvantages

What are Prepegs? Their Advantages and Disadvantages

  9 Apr 2019          Bhor Chemicals

“Prepreg” is a popular term for reinforcing a fabric which has been pre-impregnated with a resin system. This resin system already includes a proper curing agent. Resultantly, a Prepreg is ready to get moulded without adding any more resin. In order for the laminate and cure, it is necessary to use a combination of pressure and heat.

Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of prepegs.

Advantages of Prepregs

There are many certainly many advantages of prepegs. Here are a few:

Prepegs have maximum strength properties. 

In a hand layup, it is tedious to achieve 50% resin content. It means that the completed laminate weight is 50% fabric and the rest is 50% resin. The typical hand laminates, even when they are vacuum bagged, end up with a efficient amount of excess resin. Excess resin adds up to the brittleness and reduces the overall properties. On the other hand, mostly the prepregs contain about 35% of resin. This is perfect for maximum cured properties and is generally impossible to achieve in normal lamination.

Prepegs give uniformity and repeatability. 

If there would be no pitfalls of human lamination techniques, then there will neither be resin-rich areas nor dry spots. The thickness of the ingredients will be uniform and each part that comes out of the mold has a likelihood of being identical. Although there is still a margin of error in the vacuum, bagging techniques, handling, etc., yet prepregs reduce these problems to a significant amount.

Prepegs make less mess and less waste. 

Prepregs will excrete excess resin during the curing process but those excesses of hand layup, high amount of resin, messy rollers, and drips – are no more a problem. Additionally, if prepregs are handled at room temperature you need not have to take much effort to prevent your resin from setting up before you are ready.

Prepegs need reduced curing time.

After the heat curing cycle is finished, it is ready for service. You do not have to wait for 48 hours to allow a full cure like in a typical hand lamination.

Prepegs are better cosmetics.

As mold preparation and mold release is still needed and will directly affect the cosmetics of the part just like a hand laminate. However, the prepregs eliminate air bubbles and give a smooth, glossy surface.

Disadvantages of Prepregs

  1. Cost. Prepregs are a bit more pricey. Even when you sum up the cost of the resin, cure and fabric, prepegs tend to cost a bit more.
  2. Shelf life. This is a small problem because the prepregs can be stored up to six months at room temperature. However, storage at warm temperatures will reduce the shelf life of the product. Keeping the material cooler will extend life to a significant extent though.
  3. Necessary heat cure. You need to have a heat source and vacuum bagging at a minimum temperature. You must be able to achieve a minimum temperature of 270°F and sustain at that temperature for a minimum of four hours. A number of advanced fabricators use autoclaves but any source of heat can be useful.

Now that you know the advantages and disadvantages of prepegs it’s time to get in touch with us to discuss your requirements. Bhor Chemical is a reputed manufacturer of prepegs in India and is ready to serve your needs!

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The Basics of Using Carbon Fiber Laminates


  22 Mar 2019          Bhor Chemicals

If using carbon fiber composites was simple, it would have been more popular. But using carbon fiber materials takes much science and mechanical skill.

Hence, to make things easier for you, today we are discussing the basics of using carbon fiber laminates.

The Basics

Whether you are working for a hobby project or trying to trick out your car, then first consider the reason you want to use carbon fiber for. Although carbon composite is quite versatile, still it can be comparitively expensive to work with and may not be the ideal material for the job.

Carbon fiber has many benefits though. This material is amazingly lightweight, yet incredibly strong, and it has excellent mechanical properties.

Carbon fiber is also quite trendy, this means that people may use it for the sake of using it. For instance, if all you actually want is the surface finish of a carbon fiber weave, then you can save yourself the hassle and simply apply a carbon-fiber adhesive film!

Carbon Fiber Film

You can get the carbon fiber vinyl film in rolls or sheets. This film has a look and texture of actual carbon fiber. It also comes with a adhesive-backed film which is as easy to apply as a sticker. You simply need to cut it to size, peel, and stick.

Many distributors sell this film, which is extremely affordable compared to the actual carbon fiber. The carbon fiber film has higher UV resistance and provides some impact resistance too. It is used in everything from cell phones to sports cars and much more.

How to Use Carbon Fiber Film

It isn’t much difficult to learn how to use the carbon fiber film.

First, you have to be clear about the purpose why you are using the carbon fibre or carbon fiber film. If it is only for aesthetics, then the single layer of inexpensive carbon fiber will probably do the trick. This layer can cover a thick laminate of fiberglass. However, if you are planning a structural component or something which needs to be stronger, or more robust then using the carbon fiber may be warranted.

In case you are building a snowboard in your garage or designing an aircraft part by using carbon fiber, then you will have to do some planning before you begin. This can help you to avoid manufacturing which will fail, and also prevent you from wasting this expensive material. Also, by using the composite material software program, you can design a specific carbon fiber item which you need. You can also consult with a professional engineer while designing a critical part or piece, so that the failure can be avoided.


Laminating carbon fiber is nothing different than fiberglass or other reinforcements. You need to practice how to use the resin carefully. If it is a part intended for its look and feel and free of gel coat, use a better quality polyester or epoxy resin. Most epoxies and polyester resins have a yellowish or brownish colour, but a clear resin will be your best choice. Any resin utilised in surfboard manufacturing is usually as clear and transparent as water.


We hope the basics of carbon fiber laminates listed in this blog will aid in your research. If you are looking for more information, don’t hesitate to contact us. We’re always happy to help!

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How Bhor Chemicals is Helping The Aerospace Industry

  15 Mar 2019          Bhor Chemicals

Bhor Chemicals caters to many industries and markets like Structural RehabilitationProducts EngineeringIndustrial Composites, and Aerospace.

The aerospace industry we serve consists of the commercial aircraft, military rotorcraft and space structures. The significant demands of the structural performance, operating temperatures, and reliability makes composites an ideal foil for manufacturing of the components for these core segments.

The aerospace industry continues to be considered to be on the forefront in the usage of composite prepregs and high performance liquid resin systems for manufacturing of complex aero structures like fuselage sections, satellite structures, engine nacelles, wing spars, fan blades, etc.

At Bhor Chemicals, we offer high-quality and completely utilitarian solutions to the aerospace industry in India.

 Products Offered by Bhor Chemicals

  • Carbon Fibers : HS, IM and HM

  • BhorForce – Carbon, Glass, Aramid, Quartz, Fiber Woven Fabrics, 3D profiles

  • BhorPreg® – High performance hot melt Prepreg systems

  • High performance adhesives and coatings

  • Thermoformed and Thermofixed tape dry carbon reinforcements

  • BhorBond® – Polymer resins for structures made by infusion technologies

  • Coatings Putties, finishing agent, high temperature consumables, etc.

Our team is highly experienced and thus understands the demands of this market and can deliver timely tested results. Being honoured with the multiple innovation awards given by the JEC Group, Paris, we are one of the best service providers to aerospace market in India.


 Our Prime Qualities 

  • We offer high performance prepregs based on quartz reinforcements, solventless cyanate ester matrix resins and cyanate ester base resin film adhesive

  • We offer jute/coir biodegradable pultruded “green composite”

  • We develop high-performance Epoxy prepregs


Solutions we offer for several clients in the Aerospace Industry

  • Quartz Cyanate Ester Prepregs for Radome manufacturing

  • High Tg Epoxy prepreg with High modulus Carbon fiber for Satellite Structures

  • Low Aerial weight UD prepreg’s for Spacecrafts support structures

  • Out of Autoclave Epoxy prepreg’s for mini, micro and large UAV’s

Our team is not just a commercial firm but a passionate team which is backed by precise and flawless knowledge, values and dedication to our quality of work. Challenges are something that we handle everyday and are keen to handle them with care.

Not only this, but with an experience so many years, we have an eye to details and thus we take every possible measure to avoid any errors and deliver flawless service.


As the aerospace industry needs huge dedication and flawlessness, we provide special attention to every single nuance and are ready to face every hurdle.

To know how we can help you, connect with us at the earliest and get the toughest tasks solved easily!

Ask our Team about Products, Applications or our Services

Get in Touch! We will be happy to Answer !